Mastering Big Data: CFO Strategies to Transform Insight into Opportunity

18th December 2012

So profound is the potential impact of Big Data that the World Economic Forum considers it to be a new class of economic asset, akin to human capital and natural resources such as oil and gold. In this new FSN/Oracle white paper, Gary Simon, FSN’s managing editor, examines why Big Data is becoming increasingly important to CFOs and the strategies and solutions that CFOs can put into place to ensure that investments in big data projects meet management expectations and deliver real value to the organization.




















So profound is the potential impact of Big Data that the World Economic Forum considers it to be a new class of economic asset1, akin to human capital and natural resources such as oil and gold. And like the Klondike gold rush that preceded it, Big Data has the capacity to transform the wealth and competitiveness of sovereign states, companies and individuals.  So it is not surprising that Big Data has become top of mind among C-levels worldwide; according to a 2012 McKinsey Global Survey of executives, over a third believe that Big Data – along with mobile, social, and cloud computing  - will boost operating profits by 10 percent in just three years.2

Few organizations today are well positioned to take advantage of the profit opportunities afforded by Big Data.  Through 2015, more than 85% of Fortune 500 organizations will fail to effectively exploit Big Data for competitive advantage.3 Most organizations are being held back by fractured information systems, poor data management, insufficient database and hardware performance, as well as limited access to cutting-edge data discovery and visualization tools.

Clearly, whoever masters the art and science of big data will be poised to master their industries or markets.  That’s why smart CFOs are taking control of big data and business analytics projects, not just to uncover new ways to drive growth in a slowing global economy, but also to broaden their influence and impact on the enterprise.  Already increasingly responsible for overseeing IT investments and providing strategic insight to the board, CFOs will be increasingly called upon to take a crucial leadership role in assessing the value of Big Data initiatives, building on their traditional skills analyzing and reporting on data to drive decision making.  The most recent Gartner study on CFOs and technology reflects this new mandate, with business intelligence and business analytics investments ranking first among CFO investment priorities in 2012.4


This white paper will examine why Big Data is becoming increasingly important to CFOs and finance organizations, from its impact on specific industries and even governments, to the technical barriers that CFOs face in capitalizing on the promise of big data.  It will also examine the strategies and solutions CFOs can put into place to overcome these obstacles and ensure that investments in big data projects meet management expectations and deliver real value to the entire organization.


Big Data: What’s All the Fuss About?

“Every two days, we create as much information as we did from the dawn of civilization up until 2003” - Eric Schmidt, former Google CEO

The notion of Big Data is not entirely new. After all, CFOs are accustomed to dealing with mounting volumes of information.  So why all the fuss?  The volumes in most core financial applications are large but certainly not in the realms of the terabytes, petabytes, and even zettabytes being generated by the billions of connected devices consumers, companies, and governments use daily around the world. Big Data takes ‘large’ to an entirely new level, not just in the amount of information available, but in the economic opportunities that data can generate. 

But there are other reasons that make the issues of Big Data different and urgent.  First, the gap between the opportunities afforded by Big Data and an organization’s capability to exploit it is widening by the second.  For example, data is expected to grow globally by 40 percent per year but growth in IT spending is languishing at just 5 percent5.

Second, businesses are being ravaged simultaneously by the twin challenges of rampant economic, regulatory and market change and unprecedented volatility - all happening at near ‘Twitter-speed’.  As a result, there is intense interest in technologies and techniques that can provide an edge and shine a light on market trends quickly ahead of competitors.

Third, stirred by Big Data successes reported in the retail, healthcare and financial services sectors, amongst others, some market observers consider we are at the point of inflection, i.e. that Big Data really is the catalyst for entirely new growth opportunities, products and services in the private sector, not to mention cost savings and more effective resource allocation for government organizations.


Big Data is typically characterized by the so called, three “V’s” namely; volume, velocity and variety. And when it comes to volume, the statistics bandied around by Big Data cognoscenti are truly breathtaking.

For example, 15 out of 17 industry sectors in the United States will have more data stored per company than the U.S. Library of Congress5, which itself collected 235 terabytes of data in April 2011. Wal-Mart Stores Inc. handles more than 1 million customer transactions every hour, feeding databases estimated at more than 2.5 petabytes, or the equivalent of 167 times the books in the Library of Congress6. 30 billion pieces of content are shared on Facebook, monthly5. Finally, Intel estimates that there will be 15 billion devices connected to the internet by 2015. Ironically, in many parts of the world, more people have access to a mobile device than to a toilet or running water7.

But what is driving the explosive growth in data volume when the world’s economy is hardly growing at all?  The explanation lies not in an increase in transaction volumes but a broadening of data sets, i.e. “Variety” (collecting more analysis about current data) plus the collection of entirely novel types of data.  For example, in the accounting arena Solvency II requires insurers to hold information about counterparties and IFRS demands more segmental analysis. Furthermore, environmental and sustainability reporting has forced some organizations to collect entirely new information, such as electricity meter readings and CO2 emissions. Hence organizations are grappling with variety as well as volume.  Adding to the mix is the explosive growth of ‘unstructured’ data such as commentary and other text-based information in social media, tweets, emails, blogs and websites. The proliferation of mobile devices and embedded GPS positioning (location information) has added yet another new dimension, exacerbating the growth of Big Data as organizations and individuals find themselves able to interact with each other as well as corporate systems anytime and anywhere.

But what of velocity? Uncertain times create an insatiable appetite for information. Nervous regulators want to see information more frequently and management teams want to re-forecast more often and make near real-time decisions.  So the speed with which information is ‘pushed’ by consumers, ‘pulled’ (demanded) by management, delivered and consumed is accelerating.


Less often discussed is the unofficial fourth “V” of Big Data – the ‘Value’ of information since it is the value of the information that should drive the investment in Big Data rather than the collection of it, for its own sake. In fact many market commentators caution that the unfettered pursuit of Big Data will lead to difficulties in data collection, data transformation, data storage, and data analysis, potentially undermining established processes such as performance management which may not be able to cope with the manipulation of such large and unwieldy volumes.

Estimates of the value of Big Data are almost as impressive as its underlying growth.  For example, it is suggested that the US health care sector alone could save $300 billion per year – more than double the total annual health care spending in Spain5.  The same report points to the potential prize of a 60% improvement in operating margins in retailers who can leverage Big Data effectively. Other research8 is equally bullish and consistent. 93% of companies believe that the opportunity cost of not exploiting Big Data is on average 14% annually across industry sectors with Life Sciences conceding that the value could be as high as 20%. But where exactly do the best opportunities lie?

The first thing to note is that Big Data is not a level playing field.  While market opportunities for Big Data are generally large, some industries are inherently data-rich and some companies are, by their very nature, data-advantaged.  , Diversified retailers, for example, collect massive amounts of point of sale information in the normal course of operations, offering them unique insights into customer behavior, product preferences, sales trends and other market intelligence that can be used to outsmart the competition.

It is also worth highlighting that Big Data is not a one-way street. For example, if the use of Big Data leads to greater customer satisfaction, (on-time delivery, better quality, lower prices and novel services) then there is a direct benefit or ‘economic-surplus’ to the customer in addition to better margins for the vendor. In fact the estimated5 annual consumer surplus from better use of personal location data (from mobile phones) is a mouth-watering $600 billion globally.

Putting these tantalizing estimates to one side for the moment the benefits from Big Data are generally attributable to four principle themes, namely;

  • More granular information or micro-segmentation, i.e. the ability to analyze massive amounts of data and, for example, offer more personalized products and services to customers, or more targeted treatment to patients, or better re-skilling and development options for  unemployed citizens.
  • Speed of synthesis, i.e. the ability to deliver very fast, almost real-time information from masses of data, to accelerate management decision making or perhaps provide offers to consumers based on real-time location data.
  • Data combinations, i.e. the capability to straddle multiple data-sets (structured and unstructured information) to provide new insights, for example, long-term weather patterns and sales of apparel.
  • Automation, i.e. highly sophisticated algorithms performed at lightning speed which can for example, initiate the adjustment of goods displayed on a supermarket shelf according to estimated demand for products based on say social media feedback on a current advertising campaign.

Although these principles (alone or in combination) have broad applicability, one clear message arising from early experiences in harnessing Big Data is that the opportunities and benefits are highly sector specific.  And contrary to popular opinion all functional areas of an organization stand to benefit from Big Data, not just more obvious areas such as marketing and sales. Following are three examples of how big data is impacting specific sectors of the global economy.  

Retail Sector

It is widely acknowledged that the retail sector is one of the most sophisticated and experienced users of data.  The modern retailer is a data-advantaged organization because of its ability to draw on a wide range of data sources, gleaned from a variety of customer channels (in-store, on-line, catalog, financial services) and, as such, is at the lower end of lost revenue opportunities – just 10 percent8

But curiously, retail is both a major beneficiary and a victim of consumer surplus in Big Data. On the one hand the potential for retail margin improvement is immense, (marketing levers alone could affect 10% to 40% of operating margin and supply chain levers could have a 5% to 35% impact5). But on the other hand margins are being squeezed by applications such as RedLaser, a free shopping app for iPhone, Windows Phones, and Android that provides instant price comparisons between competing retailers via product barcodes and has been downloaded over 19 million times9. So how are retailers using Big Data to respond to the challenge?

There are numerous Big Data responses in the retailers’ kit bag. Popular approaches across the sector include, cross-selling, location-based marketing, in-store behavioral analysis, micro-segmentation (personalization of offers) and better supply chain management.  For example, the ability to synthesize masses of data about customer preferences, buying history and in-store behavior (through shopping cart sensors) allows the retailer to keenly manage price negotiations with suppliers.  Similar data allows them target offers with enormous precision, for example, on-line recommendation engines that say, “people that bought this product also bought…” are estimated to have delivered 30 percent of Amazon’s sales5. Underscoring the power of micro-segmentation Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos once said10, "If we have 66 million different customers, we want to have 66 million different stores."

The retail sector is interesting for two additional reasons.  First, it illustrates that Big Data opportunities reside across all functional areas, including marketing, merchandising, operations, and the supply chain.  Second, retailers must worry that not having a viable Big Data response can put business at a serious competitive disadvantage.

Healthcare sector

The healthcare sector is at the other end of the spectrum. Historically, perhaps because of immense complexity, it has not made such aggressive use of Big Data and therefore the opportunities for revenue growth at 15% are above average8. Nevertheless 100% of the sector is collecting more business information today than two years ago and volumes have grown 85% in the last two years8. And there have been some notable successes.

The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) in the United States has demonstrated several healthcare information technology (HIT) and remote patient monitoring programs.  Through its Big Data initiatives it has reduced gender disparities, i.e. gender inequalities, in 12 out of 14 Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) measures since 2008 and consistently scores higher than private sector health care on both gender-specific and gender-neutral HEDIS measures11.

In the U.K. the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, a key part of the NHS (National Health Service) uses Big Data to assess, amongst other matters, the cost-effectiveness (value for money) of medicines and to ensure patient access to appropriate treatments regardless of where they live in the UK.

Sector initiatives around remote patient monitoring offer one of the most exciting uses of Big Data both to improve patient health and save money for healthcare providers and insurers. It is estimated that 150 million patients in the U.S in 2010 were chronically ill with diseases such as diabetes and accounted for 80% of health system costs that year5. But a whole variety of remote data collection devices that can record, say, blood sugar levels, or heart performance and feed it back in real-time to clinicians can promote early intervention and prevent hospitalization with massive financial savings in healthcare.

“Chip-on-a-Pill” technology, which can provide data on how and when medicines are ingested, illustrates how some sectors are using new data sources to create completely new service and product possibilities.

Financial Services

This sector’s use of data is in the middle of the range, with an estimated 12% of revenue lost through the under-utilization of Big Data8. But like retail, it is also one of the sectors experiencing tension between its own capacity to leverage data and price transparency in the hands of the consumer.

As a result, the traditional role of the financial services intermediary (broker) is changing.  Price comparison web sites give consumers a near real-time perspective of financial savings, loans and insurance products. In fact, brokers in all industries whose strength was bound up in access to privileged information are now under pressure in the face of consumers armed with access to Big Data.

Big Data does provide plenty of opportunity for gaining market share through better cross selling and up-selling, tighter financial management and more comprehensive regulatory compliance8.  The ability to automatically sense key controls across millions of transactions through Continuous Controls Monitoring (CCM) helps businesses comply with regulation.  Auditors too can draw greater reliance from systems which monitor the entire transaction universe rather than relying on traditional statistical sampling techniques.

In this sector too, Big Data projects are spawning new products and services. Remote data capture and location-specific information is being used in imaginative car insurance products in which the insurer is able to monitor car usage (speed, time of day) remotely, so called, “Telematics” and adjust premiums accordingly12.

For example, Co-operative Insurance in the U.K. has analyzed the driving habits of 10,000 telematics insurance customers aged 17 to 25 across the UK, finding that they were 20% less likely to have a crash than those with standard insurance. Telematics customers have less serious accidents, with a typical claim 30% less than ordinary customers12.

The Co-operative Insurance case study is  a good example of economic surplus to the consumer (personalized and affordable premiums), and lower administrative costs and competitive advantage to the insurer.


While business information has always been considered a key corporate asset, Big Data is likely to set a new benchmark in that area because of the breadth and depth of management competencies and skills needed to exploit fully its potential.  There is already a massive identified shortfall in “deep analytical skills” and “data-savvy managers5”, which is why organizations are likely to draw heavily on the capabilities of the finance function. 

Classifying Big Data as a new category of asset lends further credence to the idea that the finance function is the natural ‘port of call’ for ensuring that Big Data initiatives are strategically aligned and have a demonstrable ROI (Return on Investment). Furthermore, the need to analyze and model business opportunities, define leading edge applications, and interpret results sits well with the capabilities of many modern finance functions.

From an organizational perspective, the demands of Big Data also fit well with the growing oversight role CFOs are assuming over IT.  According to the latest research by Gartner and Financial Executives International, the number of IT organizations reporting into the CFO’s office in 2012 is at a record high, as CFOs look to maximize the value of IT investments in areas like Big Data.


But it won’t all be ‘smooth sailing’.  Modern finance functions are lean operations and CFOs do not have a surfeit of resources at their disposal. They are constantly balancing the needs of the business for strategic insight and decision support with the traditional need for ‘back office’ transaction, accounting and compliance support. This represents a formidable challenge, especially at a time when organizations already complain of information ‘overload’ and overbearing business complexity.

Big Data will also take most organizations well out of their comfort zone. To date, much of an organization’s experience of data requirements is closely associated with established business processes, for example, the data needed to run a ‘purchase to pay’ cycle or to fulfill a statutory reporting requirement. But Big Data initiatives will increasingly rely on specially developed industry applications and novel uses of unfamiliar structured and unstructured data, such as location specific data and social media feeds. So, traditional methodologies around information management design are likely to be stretched to breaking point.  Also, the disruption of existing business models caused by the significance and speed of Big Data initiatives suggests that this will give rise to new partnerships and interactions across global enterprises which will have new tax, risk and regulatory implications6. Factors such as these, combined with the constant need to re-prioritize between IT investments suggest a prominent role for the CFO in helping to create and manage the value of Big Data initiatives inside the enterprise.


Just like the Klondike gold rush, the earth does not give up its riches easily. Extracting economic value from Big Data presents formidable challenges for even the most data-advantaged and IT-savvy organizations, added to which the potential risks and rewards vary considerably by industry sector.  This time around the most sought after resources will not be picks and shovels (although raw computing power and software discovery tools will have a critical role) but skills and knowledge. A shortage of 140,000 to 190,000 deep analytical positions has already been identified and 1.5 million more data-savvy managers will be needed to take full advantage of big data in the United States alone5.

Despite a record of success and innovation in most sectors the ability to launch successful Big Data initiatives is hampered by many of the same factors that have generally beset information management over the last three decades.  Setting aside organizational factors such as appropriate project sponsorship, skills and governance, the principle difficulties relate to much more prosaic considerations, such as:

  • the difficulty of data capture from distributed systems architectures
  • the ability to leverage diverse source systems
  • a lack of systems integration
  • the prevalence of multi-vendor platforms
  • the poor management of metadata 

All of this needs to be set against a period of increasing business complexity, modest IT budgets, and the competing demands of other technology-driven opportunities such as cloud, mobile, and social computing, mobile computing and further advances in e-commerce. Some businesses are struggling to standardize on platforms and streamline core processes to capitalize on these new advances.  For example, 93% of executives believe their organization is losing revenue as a result of not being able to fully leverage the information they collect8.

Big Data introduces its own set of technical challenges, such as the need to collect and store unprecedented volumes of data, the requirement to assimilate a variety of new structured and unstructured data sources, and the need to process  and analyze it that data rapidly.   And as organizations store more personal information, they bump up against more onerous obligations around data privacy and security.

In many organizations, existing database technologies, information retrieval, discovery and visualization tools are not sufficiently powerful or scalable to cope with the demand of Big Data. Overall, 60% of executives rate their companies unprepared for a “data deluge”, although their state of preparedness varies significantly between sectors8. Furthermore, as seen in the earlier examples, Big Data projects are more likely to leverage industry-specific data and applications which may need to be developed if they are not available ‘off the shelf’. 


First and foremost, CFOs must be able to provide guidance on the problem they want Big Data to solve, whether it’s trying to speed up existing processes (like fraud detection) or identifying new products or services from insights gained from customer sentiment data. If the goal of a Big Data effort cannot be clearly defined, then the initiative shouldn’t be pursued.

Second, it is vital to ensure that the organization has the right foundation  in place to treat data as a corporate asset.  Talent is critical to this equation: finding data scientists with the business experience or insights needed to frame the right hypotheses, validate them, and then apply those findings to address specific business challenges or opportunities, will be key to success.

Technology is also critical to creating the right infrastructure to capitalize on big data. A recent Oracle survey on big data business challenges discovered that 97% of executives acknowledge that their organization needs to make changes to improve information optimization over the next two years8.  The first step here is to create strong data governance, to deal with the sheer volume of structured and unstructured data that must be combined and analyzed from a wide variety of sources.  Strong data governance is essential to having confidence in the data, and this prerequisite really drives a lot of process and organizational design and definition, including ownership, validation, change management, retention policies and so on. 

There is a definite need for standardization of architectures and technology.  Certainly the underlying hardware platforms and their ability to meet the performance goals are important, but businesses should also focus on the data sources (whether they are internal or external sources), the data and application integration components, and, of course, the analytics components (the tools the business and operational resources will use to make decisions).  Increasingly, there is an opportunity to automate some of the analysis and decision making via event processing and real-time decision tools, such as those provided by Oracle.

For example, Oracle Endeca Information Discovery is an enterprise data discovery platform for advanced exploration and analysis of complex and varied data. One of its notable strengths is that it enables an interactive “model-as-you-go” approach which frees IT from the burdens of traditional data modeling and supports the broad exploration and analysis needs of business users. Its ability to explore and analyze structured, semi-structured and unstructured data is a major advantage in a Big Data setting.

But there is no getting away from the fact that Big Data, also requires industrial strength hardware and systems software solutions to process, churn and synthesize massive quantities of data. Oracle offers a choice of products for organizing big data including, the ‘Oracle Big Data Appliance’ for managing and transforming the data, ‘Oracle Exadata Database Machine’ which provides extreme performance for both data warehousing and OLTP applications and the ‘Oracle Exalytics In-Memory Machine’ for enabling the rapid performance of Business Intelligence and Performance Management applications working with extreme levels of data.

The Oracle Big Data Appliance is a carefully engineered combination of hardware and software designed to simplify implementation and management of Big Data projects.  It can handle massive volumes of data in batch and in parallel—filtering, transforming and sorting it before loading it into an enterprise data warehouse. Oracle Big Data Appliance is  a formidable workhorse comprising a powerful battery of 18 Oracle Sun servers with a total of 864 GB main memory; 216 CPU cores; 648 TB of raw disk storage; 40 Gb/s InfiniBand connectivity between nodes and,10 Gb/s Ethernet data center connectivity.

The Oracle ‘Exadata Database Machine’ is also an engineered combination of hardware and software designed to provide extreme performance for both data warehousing and OLTP applications, making it the ideal platform for consolidating on private clouds.  It is a complete package of servers, storage, networking, and software that is massively scalable, secure, and redundant. With Oracle Exadata customers can reduce IT costs through consolidation, store up to ten times more data, and improve performance of all applications, enabling faster business decisions.

 Oracle Exalytics In-Memory Machine is engineered to handle analytics and calculations ‘on the fly’ and to drive the rapid performance needed by large scale Business Intelligence and Enterprise Performance Management applications. It features powerful compute capacity, abundant memory and fast networking options optimally configured for in-memory analytics of business intelligence workloads.


For the companies that grasp the opportunity, the Big Data phenomenon holds out the possibility of transforming organizational competitiveness and disrupting established markets in a way that arguably has not been seen since the “dot com” days.

In particular, the ability to combine existing and novel forms of industry specific data, both structured and unstructured and render it quickly in a way that can be readily synthesized opens up not only the possibility of near real-time decision making but also compelling new products and services.

And across all sectors there is no shortage of data with which to amplify an organization’s understanding of its business and the stakeholders with which it interacts. For example, new data, gleaned from point-of-sale systems, multiple e-commerce channels, mobile computing, social media and advanced communications can offer instant information about the behavior, whereabouts and desires of retail customers, the health and condition of hospital patients and the driving habits of young car owners respectively.  With micro-segmented information like this, enlightened retailers, healthcare professionals and insurers are already offering and developing highly specialized services tailored exactly to the needs of their customers and patients.

Despite many notable successes, few organizations are well positioned to take advantage of the opportunities afforded by Big Data. Through 2015, more than 85% of Fortune 500 organizations will fail to effectively exploit Big Data for competitive advantage3.  Most organizations are being held back by fractured information systems, poor data management, insufficient database and hardware performance as well as limited access to suitable data discovery and visualization tools. However, innovative technologies such as Oracle Endeca Information Discovery, Oracle Big Data Appliance, Exadata and Exalytics machines are rapidly coming on stream to manage the demands of the Big Data era.

Of more concern is the global shortage of deep analytical skills and, although not articulated in studies so far, perhaps the visionary skills necessary to tease out Big Data opportunities.  The office of the CFO is uniquely placed to assist in the quest to turn Big Data to competitive advantage.  Collecting, synthesizing, and interpreting data is second nature to the finance function, but so is strategic planning and business modeling.  Over recent years, the CFO has also played an increasingly influential role in strategy setting and deciding priorities for IT spending and delivery.

Big Data presents unique opportunities for growth and competitive advantage for those organizations that marshal the skills, set appropriate priorities and seize the moment. With Big Data doubling every two years, those organizations that fail to capitalize on the new information paradigm could find it impossible to catch up.









Note1 Personal Data: The Emergence of a New Asset Class; An Initiative of the World Economic Forum January 2011 in Collaboration with Bain & Company, Inc.

Note2 McKinsey & Company Global Survey, “Minding Your Digital Business,” 2012

Note3Technology Mega-Trends the CFO Must Know”, Carol Ko, CFO Innovation Asia, August 2012

Note4 Van Decker, John E, “Top 10 Findings From Gartner’s Financial Executives International CFO Technology Study,” Gartner Research Report G00234215, May 16,2012

Note5 Big Data: The next frontier for innovation, competition and productivity, McKinsey Global Institute, June 2011

Note6 “Data + Analytics = Opportunity”; Financial Executive July/August 2012

Note7 Time magazine, The Wireless Issue, August 2012

Note8  From Overload to Impact: An Industry Scorecard on Big Data Business Challenges; Oracle July 17th 2012

Note9 Redlaser web site content as at 08/30/2012

Note10Click here for the Upsell”; CNN Money; Erick Schonfeld, July 2007

Note11 VA Press Release:  VA Continues to Reduce Gender Disparities in Health Care, August 28, 2012

Note12Car insurance: satellite boxes make young drivers safer”, Jill Insley, The Guardian,  5th April 2012


Other useful resources

1. Video:  CFO Insights interview with Frank Friedman, Deloitte CFO 

2. Video: “Tectonic Shifts Shaping the Next Wave of Business Computing,” Intel presentation, Oracle CFO Summit, April 2012, Gordon Graylish, Vice President and General Manager, Enterprise Solutions Group, Intel. Watch Now »

3. Video: The Impact of Technology on Business Insight and Competitive Advantage Barry Libenson, CIO of agricultural co-op Land O’Lakes, discusses IT transformation with Oracle solutions to improve performance and deliver unmatched customer and partner experiences. Watch Now »



About Oracle

Oracle Corporation (NASDAQ: ORCL) is the world's largest enterprise software company. With the market-leading Hyperion enterprise performance management suite, world class financial applications, and integrated governance, risk and compliance solutions Oracle helps finance executives maximize potential and deliver results for their organizations. For more information about Oracle’s Big Data Solutions, visit us at




About FSN

FSN Publishing Limited is an independent research, news and publishing organization catering for the needs of the finance function. This white paper is written by Gary Simon, Group Publisher of FSN and Managing Editor of FSN Newswire. He is a graduate of London University, a Fellow of the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales and a Fellow of the British Computer Society with more than 27 years experience of implementing management and financial reporting systems. Formerly a partner in Deloitte for more than 16 years, he has led some of the most complex information management assignments for global enterprises in the private and public sector.,.uk

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